Blue Blue的终结游戏是全球性Superflu流行病，绰号Captain Trips。超级流感在世界范围内迅速蔓延，使人类几乎没有生命线。
There is a line in Stephen King's The Stand that goes: 'Life was such a wheel that no man could stand upon it for long. And it always, in the end, came round to the same place again.'
In The Stand, a man-made virus wipes out most of the world population within a short timespan. The antigen is a genetically modified flu-virus designed to be a constantly shifting agent, thus rendering it extremely or totally invulnerable to vaccines. The virus was part of a larger US Government-funded bio-weapons program known as Project Blue.
Project Blue's end game is a global Superflu epidemic, nicknamed Captain Trips. The Superflu rapidly spreads worldwide, thinning out the human race to barely a thread of existence.
The Stand is a work of fiction, of course. The story deals with how the survivors (0.6% of the entire human population are naturally immune) deal with the new world, ultimately boiling down to a final stand between good and evil.
But the book's core message of a flu-like disease rapidly spreading and infecting an ever-increasing number of people across the world is very real and relevant indeed.
It's happening right now.
Coronavirus outbreak: The wheel has come to the same place again
At the time of writing, the coronavirus outbreak has killed almost 3,000 people worldwide, with more than 80,000 infections confirmed and rising, as the virus pops up in new countries.
Pandemics, defined as international cross-border epidemics that infect and kill large percentages of the population have occurred through the ages. The deadliest perhaps are The Black Death in mid-14th-century that killed between 75 and 200 million people (true figure will never be known), and the 1918 Spanish Flu, which may have killed up to 100m people.
Global epidemics can occur anytime, anywhere, as we have seen with the ongoing coronavirus outbreak. The first case was detected in Wuhan, China, on December 31, 2019. Wuhan, a city of around 11 million people, became a hotbed for coronavirus infection. The disease spread like wildfire and soon reached other Chinese cities before crossing international borders.
Modern air travel means that an infected individual can reach almost anywhere in the world within a few hours, which makes containment almost impossible, and global contagion a real possibility.
So what can be done to prevent that wheel from coming back again to the same place as it did in the mid 14th century and 1918?
Using blockchain technology as a weapon to prevent pandemics
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the United States' chief public health and disease prevention agency. CDC operatives show up wherever and whenever an outbreak of an infectious disease is detected. The CDC is researching how blockchain technology can become the latest weapon in their armamentarium to fight disease and prevent future epidemics from razing the world.
But this vital fight can sometimes be hampered by difficulties in the timely sharing of information with local health enforcement agencies on the ground. Language barriers, the sheer distance between the geographical location of an outbreak, cultural differences, and many other factors might become an issue that slows the transmission and exchange of information, which in some cases might literally become a life or death situation. Time is of the essence when dealing with outbreaks of the deadly disease.
Currently, the CDC uploads epidemiological data to a cloud-based solution, which is far from ideal as p
Waste management is an essential procedure as it entails the actions and activities, such as treatment, transportation, and collection, necessitated in the disposal and control of waste. Additionally, waste takes different forms ranging from gas to liquid matter.
As we continue adapting tech-savvy lifestyles, the issue of electronic waste or e-waste has become prevalent as the usefulness of many electronic gadgets and products continues to diminish. According to a United Nations report, the world emits as much as 50 million tonnes of e-waste worth $62.5 billion annually, and this exceeds the GDP of most nations. On the other hand, the amount of municipal solid waste produced yearly surpasses 2.01 billion tonnes.
These statistics, therefore, show how prudent it becomes to have efficient waste management measures. Blockchain can come in handy in the realization of this objective through the creation of a trustworthy, transparent, and immutable supply chain network for a plethora of different records. This technology can aid in the digital tracking of information, allowing an in-depth analysis of supply chains.
Trading off waste for digital tokens
When it comes to waste management, creativity, and tech-savviness are necessitated as they encourage people to incorporate more environmentally friendly measures. For instance, by offering some form of compensation, people will feel entitled to dispose of waste in the right manner.
Blockchain has proven to be an ideal player in initializing digital tokens. For instance, a Canadian company called Plastic Bank in operation in Haiti and Peru utilizes a blockchain solution to reduce the ecological ruin prompted by plastic waste.
The company has strategically located recycling centers where people take their waste, such as empty plastic water bottles, cups, and bags in exchange for digital tokens secured via a blockchain platform and can be redeemed for food or charging phones. All the plastic collected is then sold to a buyer for recycling purposes.
This blockchain model is gaining traction because an Italian town called Miglianico borrowed a leaf by implementing a similar idea. Through a blockchain-powered “Pay as You Throw” (PAYT) model, the town has been able to enhance waste management as the annual cost of waste collection has decreased from €900,000, approximately $974,000, to €600,000, nearly $649,000.
Miglianico uses both the blockchain-powered PAYT model and radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags pegged on sacks and bins. Collection staff is offered wristbands for scanning residents' waste. This approach has enabled the town to realize 85% of waste management efficiency.
Solving the e-waste puzzle
The present recycling management systems are, at times, characterized by cheating as owners usually exploit loopholes to make more profit. For instance, staff may be coerced to collect recyclable items but not make records on the same.
With blockchain, these loopholes will be sealed because a transaction will have to be stored on its distributed ledger technology (DLT) that guarantees tamper-proof records. For example, blockchain can be incorporated into satellite recycling machines where people can be enticed to exchange their functionless and old electronics and gadgets with digital tokens.
South Korea’s Jeju Island has heeded to this call because it revealed the implementation of a blockchain-enabled electric vehicle waste-battery distribution management network meant to curb depleted electric vehicle batteries last month.
Real-time tracking of waste
The other solution blockchain can offer in waste management is real-time tracking. Given that blockchain is a digital ledger network, transactions are stored both publicly and chronologically. As a result, this can boost the easier tracking of recycling and waste shipments, as well as propel regulatory compliance.
For instance, in September 2019, Waste2Wear, a Dutch green fabrics company, launched the first-ever fabric collection meant to convert ocean plastics into eco-fabrics.
Climate change and global warming are predicaments continuously wreaking havoc in modern society, and this is partly caused by inadequate waste management solutions. Blockchain, however, offers hope for boosting waste management measures through various strategies, such as distributed ledgers and digital tokens.
随着我们继续适应精通技术的生活方式，随着许多电子产品和产品的实用性不断下降，电子废物或电子废物的问题已日益普遍。根据联合国的一份报告，世界每年排放 多达5000万吨的电子废物，价值625亿美元，这超过了大多数国家的GDP。另一方面，每年产生 的城市固体废物量超过20.1亿吨。